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I have some thoughts. In my area loam with clay below, many farmers learned, after using hard pan breakers, the field became even more muddy in the following years. Somehow the hard pan became more solid in a next years. I do not know why, maybe because in my area we have good rainfall.
I am only expressing a thought. I do not have any answers for your soil. I no-till a rented piece of land for 20 years. The owner believe the soil needed tillage, I refused, and lost the land. The next year the land produce a record crop after plowing and all the tillage to level and plant. The 2nd year, the crop was less than aveage. The 3 rd year was a total failure and the farmer let the land go. I know this because the I farmed the adjoining land.
It is wrong for me to think, I know anything about your soil and the conditions you are living in. Whatever you do , keep a open mind.
Sounds like that farm you lost had a lot of carbon built up. when the new guy tilled it, it was released the first year. After which they "paid a penalty" as it can't be rebuilt as long as its being tilled.
Radishes were a very revealing cover crop last fall. They grew great at first. Then started to grow up out of the ground. Some digging discovered that when the tap root hit the hard pan (8"-12" deep) it started growing sideways. the downward growth of the main part of the radish stoped and all growth from that point was above the ground.
I think the best cover crop for me to break my hard pan may be rye grass with it's small, fine roots. I've dug it up before and found roots deeper than what the radishes were.